In looking at the construction of the Great Pyramid then of course we go over familiar ground as to what others have done and written in their investigations on this subject. However, as the years go by further knowledge is added to that which is already known which in many cases deepens the mystery as to how and why it was built?We have to go into great detail of how and why others believe it was built, as to be able to better understand the knowledge Aramac (an extraterrestrial ) has passed on to me, of his explanation of how and why it was constructed?
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To begin with it has been thought and taken for fact that the Great Pyramid was built for King Khufu as a burial tomb. This is because his name was written in hieroglyphic markings inside the construction. But, there is great doubt to its authenticity. Some were wrongly spelt, and some with bad grammar, making them appear to be fakes. The theory of a Royal tomb, historians have taken and speak about it as fact even though there is no firm evidence that this was so. The Egyptologist’s say the reason no body has been discovered in the Great Pyramid, was because before it was completed the treasures that were supposed to have been placed there, were stolen. The Pharaoh then abandoned the idea of using the pyramid as a tomb, and used a burial site underground instead.
Some theorists have said it took twenty to thirty years to build the Great Pyramid, which involved an enormous work force to complete. As we know it was built with precise measurements, some of which cannot be seen by the naked eye. The faces of the pyramid point in direct line with North, South, East and West with great accuracy. Are we to believe after all that time of designing, building, and the amount of skill involved in the construction, the builder’s did not have the ability to secure the place from thieves? With all the detailed planning, if the Great Pyramid was to be used as a tomb, then surely it would have been the first priority for the King to make sure it was secure from all intruders. One would have thought that the treasures would not have been placed in the pyramid until the Pharaoh had actually died then the pyramid could have been properly secured. When looking at the overall evidence which has been put forward claiming the Great Pyramid was a tomb, it is clear to see that was not the case.
As the Great Pyramid of Egypt is the most famous of those kinds of constructions, then many believe it was a phenomenon which only belonged to the Pharaohs but that was not so. There are the stepped pyramids in Central America, claimed to have been built by the Maya civilisation around 2,500 years ago? Also there are pyramids in Tiahuanaco Bolivia.
In 1994, Hartwig Hausdorf a German explorer gained permission from the Chinese government, to explore a once forbidden area to outsiders. In doing so, he discovered 100 large pyramids, which had never been seen by anyone in the west before. He claims that some of the pyramids in Shensi Province in Central China are even larger than Egypt’s Great Pyramid, dating back some 5,000 years. Excavations in that area will not begin until sometime in this century.
In 1962 a New Zealand airline pilot named Bruce Cathic was informed by the Chinese that there were no pyramids in China. He was nevertheless able to confirm the existence of several of them and in a book called the ‘Ridge of Infinity’ he suggested there is a network of pyramids over the surface of the earth, whose purpose is connected with leys lines and earth energies? The tallest pyramid in the world is nearly a thousand feet high again it is in China and lies forty miles from Sian in the province of Shensi and is said by archaeologists to be between 7,000 and 14,000 years old.
There are eight pyramids discovered near the town of Guimar on Tenerife. They have six steps and have a distinct resemblance to the step pyramids of South America. In Trujillo Peru there are the pyramids of the sun and moon. In 2001 a pyramid complex in Caral Peru was discovered being the same age as the Pyramids in Egypt.
In the valley of Mexico in ancient Teotihuacán overlooking a place known as ‘the way of the dead’ being 4 kilometres –long are three enormous pyramids. These representing the sun, the moon, and the pyramid of Quetzalcoatl. There are many small pyramids that can be seen across Europe from France to Greece. In 2003 in Italy a pyramid was found and in 2005 another was unearthed in Bosnia. Pyramids are still being discovered in some parts of the world where in the past they have been hidden underground such as Bosnia. And so the list goes on and on.
We can quite clearly learn that pyramid building was not confined to the Egyptians, and they were being built when those countries mentioned were not supposed to have been in communication with each other. At that time no journeys or voyages of discovery were possible to explore the other countries of the world. And yet many ancient races had the ability and the same kind of knowledge to build pyramids. Therefore, there has to be another reason why, and how they were erected. Another thing to consider is that a number of Egyptian drawings and hieroglyphic writings has been found, showing how they conducted their lives. Some portrayed the harvest time the sowing of seeds, then harvesting the crops. If it had been the Egyptians who had built the Great Pyramid then surely they would have also kept a record in pictorial drawings in the different stages in its construction? There must have been in the first instance before construction many sets of plans being drawn up setting out the dimensions of the Great Pyramid perhaps drawn on papyrus paper, for you could not build such a construction successfully without them?
A number of documentaries over the years shown on TV have seriously undermined the precision required to complete the Great Pyramid in its construction. I remember one particular documentary where the builder in the first instance held up what is known as a plumb bob (a small heavy weight attached to a piece of string held from the hand) and aligned it to one particular star. this was the only pice of equipment used for the alinment of the pyramid to the star.
This is total nonsense at its highest. Any architect or builder in watching the programme must have laughed their heads off. You simply could not achieve the very precise measurements in that manner. And yet no one challenges the documentary makers, for the ordinary laymen not having been in the building trade and having little knowledge of the construction of a pyramid will then accept what they have seen as fact
We can get some idea of the complex precision required to build the Great Pyramid of what Dr Livo C. Stecchini wrote a number of years ago in an essay ‘Astronomical Theory and Historical Data’
He said; “The Great Pyramid was built exactly in the centre of the earth’s mass its position could have been determined only from space, because of its amazing geographical and mathematical knowledge known in those ancient days”.
“I was fortunate to come across a set of Egyptian documents well-known but neglected, which prove that by the time of the first dynasties (5,000 bc) the Egyptians had measured down to the minute the latitude and longitude of all the main points of the course of the Nile from the Equator to the Mediterranean Sea”.
“Following this first result I have traced a series of texts (all earlier than the beginning of Greek science) which, starting from Egypt, provided positional data that cover most of the old world, from the Rivers, Congo and Zambezi to the Norwegian coast, from the Gulf of Guinea to Indonesia, including such unlikely places as peaks of Switzerland and even junctions in Central Russia.
“The data are so precise that they are a source of discomfort. I have desperately tried to ascertain errors but I have never been able to establish an error of latitude greater than a minute or error of longitude greater than possibly five minutes in ten degrees”
“Such fantastic precision presupposes scientists with immense erudition after millennia of civilisation yet Egyptologists stress that the Egyptians had little mathematical skill .The Rhind Papyrus, 2,000 bc describes the Egyptians doing simple sums but complex mathematics was beyond them. Sir Leonard Woolley states that the Egyptians had no knowledge of algebra, geometry and arithmetic their methods were childish and imperfect it is difficult to explain how they could calculate the volume of a pyramid”.
The most popular theory as to how the Great Pyramid was constructed was by the use of Egyptian workers, if that had been so the first task in the operation would be to cut the limestone from the face of the quarry. It has been estimated that 2. 5 million blocks of stone, each averaging around 2. 5 tonnes in weight, were needed to build the construction? There is a problem here, which can mislead people in the estimate given of the size of the stones. Although that estimation maybe correct up to a point, it does not disclose the hidden facts which arise when giving that kind of estimation, which lessons the task of construction.
For example, when a national average wage has been estimated for the workers of this country, a true picture has not been the result. When making that estimate there have been the low paid workers, the middle earners in society and those who are paid well above those two groups of people, they, perhaps earning thousands of pounds a week. Therefore, when an estimate has been given of the average weekly wage say that of four hundred pound, it is misleading for one may believe the majority of people in this country are paid that wage, which is totally untrue. It is good propaganda for the politicians, but an unrealistic assessment of the truth.
The same situation arises when giving an estimate of the average weight of each stone in the Great Pyramid, which has been calculated to be 2. - 5 tonnes. It makes a person believe the majority of stones are of that weight. Where a large amount of them weigh 5, -15 tones
For example on the north face of the Great Pyramid near the bottom there are a number of enormous 15-ton polished casing blocks that were not stolen as most of the others were, to build houses in Egypt. They are tightly jointed together with great accuracy of one hundredth of an inch. A thin piece of paper can scarcely be pushed between the cracks
In quarrying the limestone it has been proved up to a point that the stone was broken away from the quarry face by the lighting of fires. The heat of the fire cracked the limestone, and as it is a relatively soft stone, wooden wedges soaked in water were hammered into those cracks where they slowly begin to expand. One such demonstration was filmed and shown on television in 1978 in a documentary entitled‘The case for Ancient Astronauts’ produced by the BBC showing this procedure.
One small experiment may show it can be done on a very small scale, but just imagine the overall task of this operation going on for 25-30 years the length of estimated times that it took to build the Great Pyramid.. We are talking of 2.5 million tones of stone being cut from the quarry face. The fires that would be needed for such a large operation would have to be enormous in order to keep on supplying the stone for the construction of the pyramid. The intense heat would have been so great that it would have penetrated the limestone and seriously weakened its structure, making it crumble and unstable. It would also have been an extremely tedious task to fix wedges in the cracks and to wait for them to expand this would have been a very time consuming process. Just imagine how many trees would be required over so many years to keep those fires burning; and those that made wedges you would need millions of them.
The next step after cutting the stones from the face of the quarry would be to further cut and dress them into the varying sizes required. One original theory says this was done by the use of a stone held in the hand then used like a hammer. Another stone with a jagged end was used as a chisel, and then the blocks were smoothed by sand or limestone rock?
With having a great deal of experience in the building trade I can tell you using stones as tools would have been impossible. You would not be able to get the very precise measurements required in the stone dressing process. Also the workers would have had to wear modern day gloves, especially made for that kind of hard work. To hold one stone as a form of chisel and the other as a pounder would mean after an hour or two both hands would ache so much where the workers would not be able to hold those stone implements. Their hands would soon become sore creating blisters and even if they had used gloves the same problem would arise. The heat of the sun through the gloves would make the hands extremely hot where irritation between the glove and the hand would become so severe again the hands would become sore creating blisters.
Herodotus the Greek historian said it took twenty years to build the Great Pyramid, using such things as saws made of brose with diamonds or jewels in the cutting edge.
Again that is a ridiculous claim. For one thing where would they get all those diamonds or jewels from there are no mines in Egypt? They would have to have imported them in but where from? Diamond and jewel mining as we know today is not a simple process taking dynamite to first blow up the ground then to sort it out with various machines it is a very intense process to finally get to a finished diamond or Jewel. No country at that time would have been able to supply diamonds or jewels for twenty years. The cost to the Pharaoh would have simply bankrupted him. Also the Pharaoh would not have been able to trust thousands of workers with such equipment. The diamonds and jewels would have been so valuable the workers would simply have stolen them.
Another theory is that they used copper chisels with wooden mallets. Using a wooden mallet in hitting a copper chisel is not that affective for the mallet made of wood tends to bounce off the chisel. It is not heavy enough to create a strong enough impact to effectively dress the stone, though that action to a degree will chip off rough pieces but would not dress the stone smoothly.
It has been mentioned of how poles were used as wedges when heating the stone from the quarry face. To carve a pole into a wedge shape at one end could not have been achieved in just using jewelled saws and copper chisels; they are simply not sharp or strong enough. The theory says that as copper is a soft metal then after around a hundred blows from the hammer in dressing the stone, they were taken away for re-sharpening. We can take a brief look into what this would entail.
Many years ago Paul and Brenda Craddock who had an interest in experimental archaeology ran a five day course for MA archaeology students from Birkbeck College University of London, at Buster Iron Age Farm Hampshire. For all the students who took part this was their first experience of experimental archaeology and metallurgy. They formed basic furnaces, using bag bellows and tuyeres (clay pipes or blow pipes) and crucibles, these being made from clay, sand, straw and sheep dung, and fired on an open fire.
With the amount of stone to be dressed for the Great Pyramid and with it being a slow tedious job also working to precise measurements then in order for the building to keep moving, you would need around two-three thousand workers for this task. Just think of all those basic implements just mentioned that would be required to carry out the operation. Copper chisels would have to be made in their hundreds of thousands if not more, and worn out ones would have to be sharpened every one or two hours as the soft metal would soon be blunt and of no use. There is no evidence at all that any furnaces were used in Egypt where there should be traces in abundance, even if they have in time been covered by sand.
We also have to consider the handling of the chisels by the workmen. I have experienced on a summer’s day when a using a metal chisel, that when not in use for a short time and it is exposed to the sun, it quickly absorbs heat. I remember on a few occasions when I had picked it up and suddenly had to drop it very quickly because of the accumulated heat within the metal. With copper being a soft metal then it adsorbs greater heat in an even shorter time than metal. The workers in the heat of the desert would have to keep cooling the copper chisels off, every few minutes by dipping them in cold water, which again would be a time consuming process?
I have also experienced when dressing a stone with a hard metal chisel after a time the continuous pounding from a metal hammer eventually weakens the metal at the top of the chisel. The hammering pushes the metal outward at the top of the chisel in a mushroom shape, where eventually it weakens and pieces fall off to the ground. Again with copper being a soft metal then this process of loose copper would be intensified. Even using a soft wooden mallet would after a time push the copper chisel into a mushroom shape where bits would fall to the ground. The result would be that the chisel cannot be sharpened but a new one would have to be made. This would also have meant quite an accumulation of tint copper fragments falling into the sand of the dessert. over the many years of investigation in and around the site of the great pyramid not one single piece of copper fragment has been found when there should be an abundance of them. One may say that the framents were picked up and used again, however, they would have been so small and it would have been a time consuming task that it just would not have been worth it.
Once the limestone had been cut from the quarry face they would be of all different sizes with no particular shape, it would be then where they would have to be finely dressed to the required sizes. Where some stones could be weighing 2. 5 tonnes after they were dressed could have meant them weighing 3 or 4 tonnes before they had been cut down to the right sizes. This means much waste stone had to be cut away to get them to the shape required. This is also very time consuming work and even when it has been achieved further dressing has to be carried out to make a presentable face upon the stone. The dressing of a stone also involves turning it over and over countless times, so the final accurate size can be achieved on all four sides.
This procedure is straightforward for an ordinary house building stone todaybut just imagine how much more work would be involved in this process, with a stone weighing 2. 5. tonnes or more? To keep turning them over and over with wooden poles would be extremely difficult. With the dressing of the stones there would have been an enormous amount of waste running into thousands of tons, which should still be at the quarry today. That kind of stone waste can be seen today when Royal Tombs were dug underground in the desert these being in the Valley of the Kings, and small in their construction. Therefore, with the enormous size of the Great Pyramid there should be huge piles of waste left from cutting the stones.
The rough dressing of the stones for the Great Pyramid would have been done at the quarry but the final dressing of the stones perhaps, would have been done on the site of the pyramid. If done at the quarry the finished corners of the stone being so fine would easily have become damaged in the journey from the quarry to the erection site. The final dressing of the stones would be no easy task. Many years ago a student in his research of the Great Pyramid named Christopher Dunn talked with a manager of the Indiana Limestone Institute, USA. He asked him how long would his thirty three quarries be able to produce cut and deliver 2-5 million stones weighing from 6-30 tons. He was told by the manager that even with the sophisticated stone cutting equipment of today it would take twenty seven years.
In his research he also asked an engineer who worked on stone cutting in the quarries of Indiana what tolerance they worked to (i.e. how much inaccuracy did they allow themselves). He was told very close, which was defined as a quarter of an inch. When he was told that the blocks of the Great Pyramid were cut to 0.01 tolerances the stonecutter was unbelieving. Examination of the outer casing stones of the Great Pyramid showed that they had been cut according to highly accurate engineering tolerances. This could not have been achieved with the simple tools that the Egyptians had at hand working to such fine precision to that of an optician
Most of the stone used was limestone available in huge quantities in the immediate vicinity. A better grade used for some of the interior work came from quarries near Memphis. The outer casing a fine white limestone was obtained from Turu some fifteen miles away and granite used for the sarcophagus was quarried at Aswan and floated down the Nile on barges for a distance of 600 miles.
Once the partly dressed stones were ready then the claim is they were pulled from the quarry on wooden sledges down to the Nile then placed on rafts. In pulling the sledges from the quarry lubricant such as water was placed on the limestone floor which made it easier for the sledges to slide upon. However, this would make it difficult for the workers for they would slip and slide when pulling the sledges with ropes. They would not be able to use lubricant when pulling the sledges on rough ground from the quarry to the river Nile, for with the heat of the sun it would simply be absorbed into the ground.
The next question is how did they construct the sledges? The copper chisels could not possibly have cut the secure joints needed in the wood in order to hold the sledges together; they would simply have slid on the wood. That could only be achieved with metal chisels similar to those we have today. Also the sledges would have to be made from the rough timber poles for they had no such tools as planes to give a smooth finish on the timber. Ropes would not have been adequate to hold the sledges together; they would simply have buckled under the weight of the stone. Again what with wear and tare of the sledges there would have had to have been hundreds of thousands made as with the hundreds of thousands of poles used as rollers and levers yet not one single remain has been found of those implements.
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When people talk of the construction of the Great Pyramid the fact seems to be ignored that there are another two pyramids next to it, though smaller in size. If it took twenty years to build the Great Pyramid, as Herodotus suggests, though smaller the other two pyramids would have been of a similar time scale so they all would have been built in a time scale of 55 – 60 years. Even then that is not the end of the problem, for down the western edge of the desert, there are ninety-two pyramids. If you add again all the simple tools and equipment such as poles, levers, copper chisels, rafts just used for the Great Pyramid then we have to multiply them 94 times, it is mind boggling the amount of all the tools and timber for such a gigantic operation. On top of all that, there is also the monument of the Sphinx a large construction in its own right.
The rest of the chapter continues to look at every theory put forward about the Great Pyramid. Such as the impossibilities of it being erected by simple workers. Aramac then gives his explanations of how and why all the pyramids were built that are scattered around the earth, along with those on other planets.
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