ET Brain 2012 Contagious to Omniverse Brane Changes – Quantum Two or Us!

Paranormal Agenda – Awareness & Communication of Truth

By Motivation of Humanoids – The ET Interests!
Theresa J. Thurmond Morris
I believe we are all about the future paranormal agenda of our own soul’s interest in awareness and communication of truth. This is a bold statement so I will add that I believe we are humans are interested in extraterrestrials or Ets the same as they are interested in us. The future will deal with the way we all will define this new world.
We are going to all share a date in time placed on this planet prior to our arrival. This date is December 21, 2012. The actual time is 11:11 and we can all experience this time together as a date that will forever be a part of our future history. It is already a part of our ancient history.
2012 and beyond will include more about our world’s paranormal agenda. 
Having interests in others and how they view the world is part of who we are as social creatures. We are interested in how others perceive and believe. 
Could this be the extraterrestrials interests as well? I believe that those above we consider extraterrestrial and are supreme in intelligence are aware of others above them in a hierarchy in the Omniverse.
I once only thought as I was taught to think based on where I was born as my point of origin to this world. However, I had another set of memories and another way to see inside out and outside into my present body-mind-spirit.
I first acquired this duplicate set of memories or files from the time I was about four or five. It was before I started school and I can remember where I was and how I saw myself from over head in a spacecraft. 
This is something that most would agree is paranormal. Although a part of me remembers being in my cradle and watching these UFOS that I now know we call unidentified flying objects, I had only my human point of view to observe. The key word here is observe. I believe what makes us human is our power of observation. 
However, I have come to the conclusion that those of us who experience an epiphany brought on from life and near death experiences, are challenged with the knowledge to understand that we have become different and been able to observe our own awareness from ourselves outside of our personal power we call a unit or vessel of earthly created body-mind-spirit as a humanoid.
We who are paranormal writers are open minded and are researching, searching, learning, and becoming aware of the future communication of truth. We are motivated to share our understanding of our own awareness through communication. 
Our truth is how we understand ourselves at the present time which is subject to change. Therefore the one thing on this planet we can count on is change. Those who in the past saw life on earth as a constant and could not adapt and overcome that which changes have all gone. 
It is safe to say that all those who are born in the last century 1900-2000 will know to become open minded based on the need for change in this world.
Those of us who desire to work on the cutting edge or fringes of change in society work in the paranormal arena of words of an eclectic society. We have a plethora of interests. We in the paranormal community are learning to define more of our mysteries of life with communication in not only our writing for readers but with our videos, music, art, and any and all other forms of communication. This is a communication age of advancement.
What our goals and challenges will entail remains to be seen by each individual.
The communication of our personal opinions, and world views have never before in time on earth made easier to share than at the present time. We who share the Internet realize that we can access more awareness and communication of truth from others’ than ever before thought possible. We are sharing more of our selves socially than we ever thought possible.
We are growing in many ways. We are sharing in may ways. The future of communication and persuasion will become a part of our future way of life on this planet. We are learning to share in our personal interests. We are sharing more in ways that allow those in academic studies to access our thoughts and concerns in our blogs and on our websites. We have become a more transparent global community. 
The world has no one world control and the “Global Super Powers” have been recognized as what we now regard as the “G20”. This deals with politics that govern our various continents, cultures, societies, nation states, and how we expect our leaders to engage in keeping peace of humankind.
There are certain areas that are changing but we should mention the earth’s areas that have in the past made a distinct difference in our lives thus far. The various areas we are asked to consider now are in these areas:
Art, culture, education, science, and technology as the big five in this one world order or global community we are shaping for the future generations.
The areas that are broken down even further are anthropology, psychology, sociology, economists, and political scientists in no particular order.
We can now see how our paranormal agenda will fall into all of these categories:
We are excited about the future advancements of levels in the layers of our present dimension. We will be asking more of those who are a part of our reading and writing group to share information relating to brains and branes for others to begin relating too in this world.
Time Travel in Space Time of the Future
Brains and Branes in our Omniverse
Scientific and Theosophical Support
In order to understand ourselves, we must learn to communicate with others. We are social creatures. We can share how to learn with both our brains and our branes.
We are sharing small amounts of information for parts of our team. We share spiritual intellectual thoughts each month during our research and investigations. 
We share on the Internet and use the GNU license. We hope this is not threatened.
We cannot begin to share everything one will nee to know about time travel in space-time in the future until we have 51% of our species understanding and persuaded to share the future with others in the Omniverse.
The Omniverse
In this physical cosmology context, the limitation of the definition of “universe” that it has only one set of “physical laws and constants that govern them,” is expanded to include multiple sets of physical laws and constants, each expressed as a wholly or partially separate universe. The term is used in quantum mechanics to differentiate the concept of a limited number of universes from all existent universes. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
We have time as a major part of our life on earth.
Our universe had to start from another universe, but that universe had to start somewhere too. The branes are the sheets flowing in the multiverse, or polyverse inside the metaverse. The metaverse is inside the Xenoverse of the unknown, which is the outer layer, or level prior to the outer macrocosm we call the Omniverse.
We are learning new ways to define our future inside space in our brains and branes in space. 
Hierarchy within the omniverse
Universe: The inside description of a context that is relative in size/structure (attributes/modes) to the known universe that we inhabit. A Universe, also known as a Cosmos, is a particular individual space-time organization with a specified number of dimensions of space and time and definite and specific laws of physics. Other Universes (other Cosmoses) may have different numbers of dimensions of space and time and different laws of physics than our own Universe (Cosmos.
Multiverse: The part of infinity, that directly joins a given universe with all possible configurations of that universe.
Metaverse: In string theory, the part that is along with, after; over also denoting change in the multiverse that houses the branes or film that each universe is said to be attached to and hang like individual sheets in a hypermagnetic wave with rhythms of hypercosmic strings going up and down that has a third element causing up, down, backwards, forwards, motions inside the Xenoverse.
Note: In computer science, a metaverse is a virtual reality simulation based on the physical reality of a single individual universe, but one or more levels of implementation above it. It is conceived that it will be possible in forthcoming centuries to create such simulations using massive arrays of matrioshka brains and Jupiter brains..
Xenoverse: the unknown alien elements that are beyond and part of the metaverse and multiverse structure. Compared to a patchwork quilt hanging on a line to dry in space that is multivariate inside the Omniverse. While Omniverse is said to be the outside ring of all that is known, the xenoverse is the inside the hypermacrocosm that is unknown beyond the metaverse—the unknown sets of laws that govern how branes behave to create multiverses.
Omniverse: All possible attributes and modes are in play, multiverses are categorized by the attributes/modes active in its child universes. Some or all possible modes of existence are actualized. If we take the point of origin as our being as a point in measurement, then we can generate the following hierarchy: 1. our location in space-time, 2. this universe (cosmos), 3. the multiverse, 4. the metaverse, 5. the xenoverse, 6. the omniverse.
Where did the branes come from?
They exist in a even larger space called a multiverse, which themselves float around in the infinite ocean that is the omniverse. The omniverse was always there as it is infinite. At least according to one version of M-brane theory.Thomas1134 wrote: M-theory is the only theory we currently have which explains how the Big Bang actually happened. 
To keep it simple, two branes in the multi-verse come into contact, creating an explosion of energy, which later cools to form matter. This is our Universe. 
We will redefine our future in space and in space-time. This will make us question the famous E=MC2 formula. We are now dealing with Quantum Theory. This will take us into the future past what we now call Quantum Entanglement.
Quantum theory, the modern physical theory concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles, is one of the most important theories devised in the 20th century. 
The theory is revolutionary as it replaces classical physics in the description of events at the microscopic level and now the theory provides the foundation for modern physics and chemistry.
The person who formed the basis of the quantum theory was Max Planck. In the 19th century, scientists used laws of classical physics to explain the relationship between matter and energy. 
There are many examples of student requirements in schools. However, one of the most dreaded subjects of interest is the creation of a science coursework. Many individuals get so frustrated in completing these projects since they require great amounts of researching. Add to that the fact that science coursework tend to demand an enormous time of completion for feasibility testing, just like in a thesis.
Read More: Science Projects
Quantum Gravity May Explain Dark Matter This paper explains that by using the correct quantum law of gravity, there is no need to postulate the existence of dark matter to produce the observed gravity.
Read More: Quantum Gravity May Explain Dark Matter
Nature of Time Travel Not Original Plan
Dealing in Space Time
Rishon Model of Elementary Particles
2-08-2010, 13:58 in: Science
It has been proposed that the quarks and leptons consist of more fundamental particles called rishons. The T rishon may be defined as having mass and charge e/3. The V rishon is neutral and has little or no mass. The rishons have spin 1/2, carry color charge, and combine in triplets or rishon-antirishon pairs. 
Thus, the electron is a TTT, the neutrino VVV, the down quark TVV, and the up quark TTV. If the T has somewhat greater color charge than the V, the down quark would have a net excess of the color carried by the T. The antiup quark TTV would appear to have a net deficiency of the color carried by the V, or equivalently, an excess of anticolor, and behave as an antiparticle. Hence, the TTV would appear to have an excess of color and behave as a particle, in agreement with observation. 
The leptons have no net color. There is no need for hyper color. All particle interactions consist of rearrangements of rishons, or creation or annihilation of rishon-antirishon pairs.
 For example, beta-decay occurs when a down quark changes to an up quark, emitting an electron and neutrino: TVV –> TTV + TTT + VVV the massless particle was originally called a neutrino; it was later defined to be an antineutrino. 
This model favors the first choice. If the binding between rishons is much greater than the binding between quarks or leptons, then quarks and leptons could associate without losing their identity, just as atoms can form molecules. Lepton number is also conserved if the VVV is assigned a negative lepton number. 
The second and third generations of the electron and the quarks might be formed by adding one or two TT pairs to the first generation. 
The second and third generations of the neutrino might be formed by adding one or two VV pairs to the first generation. The force binding the rishons is evidently so great that the separate rishon wave functions “fall” together into just one wave function, in which case there would be no internal structure. The effective mass of the TTV is nearly equal to that of the TVV, which implies that the T-T bond has binding energy nearly equal to the bare mass of a T. 
The electron has three T’s and three bonds and hence should have little mass compared to a quark, as observed. The muon obtains most of its mass from the added TT and should have a mass comparable to that of a quark, as observed. The boson carriers of the weak force presumably consist of the rishons required to form the decay products. 
The photon may consist of a colorless VV pair; for example red-antired. The gluon may consist of a colored VV pair, for example red-antiblue. Hence, the weak force may simply be the color force carried by weak bosons; the electromagnetic force is the color force carried by photons, and the strong force is the color force carried by gluons, mesons, quarks, and possibly other hadrons.
 A real TT would annihilate, while a virtual pair might help carry the strong force.
 A bare rishon, a TV, TV, TT, or VV would carry net color and, like the quarks, would not be seen in isolation. The proton consists of two up quarks and a down quark, so the hydrogen atom has four T’s, four T’s, two V’s, and two V’s. If this typifies the whole universe, then there exist equal amounts of rishons and antirishons.
 One might speculate further that the emission and absorption of virtual particles is just Hawking radiation.
 The spacetime itself around a rishon might have quantum states. The large spin of a rishon would eliminate the spherically symmetric S states, leaving three P states with the time coordinate expanded, and three P states with the time coordinate compressed. These might be identified with the three colors and three anticolors. 
The difference in the time coordinate would cause a slight difference in the reaction rates of rishons and antirishons, explaining why hydrogen is more abundant than antihydrogen. Another possibility is that the rishons and antirishons have opposite handedness and parity violation causes a difference in the reaction rates. The rishons themselves may be just quanta of spacetime. 
The V rishon might be the lowest P state, and the T rishon the next-highest P state. 
Thus, the T and V would be similar, but somewhat mismatched, as observed. If this sort of model were correct, it would be the basis of the long-sought unified field theory. The strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces are just the color force carried by intermediates, and the color force itself may be identified with quantum gravity of which ordinary gravity is the long-range limit. 
Reference Haim Harari, “The Structure of Quarks and Leptons,” Scientific American, p.56, April 1983.
Quantum theory, the modern physical theory concerned with the emission and absorption of energy by matter and with the motion of material particles, is one of the most important theories devised in the 20th century. 
The theory is revolutionary as it replaces classical physics in the description of events at the microscopic level and now the theory provides the foundation for modern physics and chemistry.
The person who formed the basis of the quantum theory was Max Planck. In the 19th century, scientists used laws of classical physics to explain the relationship between matter and energy. 
Toward the end of the 19th century, various experimental results were obtained that could not be explained by classical physics. One of the failures of classical physics was the inability to explain the observed frequency distribution of radiant energy emitted by a hot blackbody. Classical physics predicts that when a blackbody is heated, the frequencies of the light radiated will take on a continuous range of values from zero to infinity. However, from experimental observations, the frequency distribution reaches a maximum and then falls off to zero as the frequency increases. In 1900, Max Planck announced a theory to explain the observed frequency distribution of blackbody radiation. 
He suggested that a blackbody atom radiating light of frequency v is restricted to emitting an amount of energy given by hv (where h is the Planck’s constant). Planck called this definite amount of energy a quantum of energy. In classical physics, energy is a continuous variable. In quantum physics, energy is quantized, meaning that energy can take on only certain values.
After Planck announced his theory, Albert Einstein applied the concept of energy quantization to the explanation of the experimental observations in the photoelectric effect. 
The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon when electrons are ejected from a substance exposed to electromagnetic radiation. According to classical physics, the average energy carried by an ejected electron should increase with the intensity of the incident radiation and not the frequency. However, from experimental observations, the energy of electrons ejected depends on the frequency of the incident radiation. Increasing the intensity of the incident radiation would only increase the amount and not the average energy of the electrons ejected. In addition, for every substance irradiated, no electrons are ejected irrespective of the light intensity below a threshold frequency. 
In 1905, Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by extending Planck’s concept of energy quantization to electromagnetic radiation. He proposed that besides having wavelike properties, electromagnetic radiation could be considered to consist of individual quanta, called photons, which interact with the electrons in the substance like discrete particles. 
For a given frequency v of the incident radiation, each photon carries a definite amount of energy given by hv, where h is the Planck’s constant. The threshold frequency is explained by the different nature of the materials. For each material, there is a certain minimum energy, called the work function F, necessary to liberate an electron. Thus the threshold frequency, v0, corresponds to a minimum energy packet, hv0 (=F), required to liberate the electron.
The next major contribution to the quantum theory was Niels Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom. When hydrogen gas is heated, the hydrogen atoms emit electromagnetic radiation of only certain distinct frequencies. During 1885 to 1910, Rydberg and Balmer independently found an empirical formula, called the Rydberg equation, which correctly reproduces the observed hydrogen atom spectral frequencies. However, there was no explanation for this formula. Meanwhile, in 1911, Rutherford introduced his atomic model, a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a revolving, negatively charged electron cloud. 
According to classical physics, Rutherford’s atom is unstable because the negative electrons are attracted by the positive nucleus. As a result, the electrons will spiral into the nucleus releasing huge amounts of energy and the electrons’ spectral frequencies will change continuously. 
In 1913, Bohr introduced his theory of the hydrogen atom by applying quantum theory to Rutherford’s electron cloud. In his theory, Bohr postulated that the electrons could only revolve about the nucleus in fixed orbits of different energy values, such that the angular momentum of the revolving electron is quantized. 
When an electron is in an allowed orbit, the atom does not radiate energy. Such an electron is said to be in the stationary state and it has a certain amount of energy. If the electron makes its transitions from one energy level to another, photons of energies corresponding to the difference between the initial and final energy levels are emitted or absorbed. This gives rise to the set of characteristic line spectra and the Rydberg equation can finally be explained.
After Bohr announced his theory of the hydrogen atom, attempts were made to apply Bohr’s theory to atoms with more than one electron and to molecules. However, all attempts to derive the spectra of such systems using extensions of Bohr’s theory failed. A key idea towards resolving these difficulties was advanced by Louis de Broglie in 1923. 
He proposed that just as light shows, both wave and particle like behaviors, matter has a “dual” nature. He assumed that any particle, for example, an electron, an atom, etc, has a wavelength l, which is given by h/p, where h is the Planck’s constant and p is the particles’ momentum. De Broglie obtained this equation by reasoning in analogy with photons. Although photons do not have mass, but they do have energy. As Einstein famously proved, mass and energy are related in the equation E = mc2 where E is the energy, m is the mass and c is the speed of light. At speed c, a photon has a nonzero mass m. 
So by combining the 2 formulae, E = mc2 and E = hv, de Broglie obtained the equation l = h/p. In 1927, Davisson and Germer, who observed diffraction effects when an electron beam was reflected from a crystal of nickel, experimentally confirmed his hypothesis. Since then, similar diffraction effects have been observed with neutrons, protons, helium atoms, and hydrogen molecules, indicating that the de Broglie hypothesis applies to all material particles, not just electrons.
After the 1920s, more and more observations were found to prove the validity of the quantum theory. Soon, the quantum theory led to the modern theory of the interaction between matter and radiation known as quantum mechanics, which generalized and replaced classical mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. Since then, science never looked back, as the quest for the understanding of how everything works continued…
This post originally appeared on
-Quantum- Tachyons
By J. D. Shelton
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is baffling, while the many-worlds interpretation is unrealistic. The time travel model attempts to provide a comprehensible explanation.
In this model, we assume that the presence of a particle causes vibrations in the time coordinate of spacetime. 
The wave function may be identified with the amplitude of these temporal vibrations. 
The square of the wave function is proportional to the strength of these vibrations and gives the likelihood of finding a particle in the vicinity.
The time waves at present overlap the time waves of a moment ago, and so on, so that a particle becomes spread out over all the spacetime between the last interaction and all possible points of the next interaction. 
If a particle’s time coordinate is uncertain, its position and momentum are also uncertain.
When an interaction occurs, the particle is no longer available for time travel and the wave function collapses backward in time to the point of the last interaction. 
Since we cannot observe the past, the collapse appears instantaneous. The collapse is itself not observable, so nothing observable changes in the past.
The Schrödinger equation states that the frequency of temporal vibration is proportional to the energy. 
Its complex nature is a mathematical way of describing vibrations. 
The many-dimensional nature of the wave function is a consequence of the Hamiltonian formulation. 
There is no implication that the world is actually complex or many dimensional.
The relativity of simultaneity causes a uniform vibration to become a traveling wave when seen from a moving coordinate system, which is why the momentum is obtained by taking the spatial derivative of the wave function.
The antisymmetric Fermi statistics of the wave function under exchange of a pair of identical fermions is a way of stating that the particles cannot occupy the same space at the same time. 
If all fundamental particles are, spin one-half rishon fermions, and then the symmetric Bose statistics are simply obtained by exchanging rishons two pairs at a time.
Let us consider two classic examples. In the two-slit experiment, a particle may go through one slit, then back in time, then through the other slit. 
In the case of two quantum-entangled particles, when one is observed, the wave function for that orientation collapses backward in time, leaving only the wave function for the opposite orientation.
If a time wave curved around into a circle much smaller than its wavelength, the entire whirl would appear to oscillate back and forth in time. 
The whirl could not dissipate due to conservation of energy and angular momentum, or other quantum numbers. 
We suggest that these whirls are in fact the rishons. 
It is also a law of nature that a rishon cannot disappear unless it meets its antirishon. This model explains how a particle can produce time waves: particles simply are trapped time waves.
The observed intrinsic spin of a rishon is far greater than what could be possessed by a small rotating mass. 
In our model, the internal rotational phase velocity of the time waves may be much greater than the speed of light, since no information is conveyed. 
This may explain how a rishon can have a large angular momentum but little mass.
 Since a rishon is a cloud of time waves, it would have eigenstates of angular momentum. 
When its angular momentum (or energy) is measured, one would always find it to be an eigenstate, in accord with general principles of quantum mechanics. 
This cannot be understood if a rishon is viewed as a point particle.
The V rishon may be the lowest possible energy state, while the T rishon may be the highest possible energy state, perhaps because the phase velocity has slowed down to the speed of light.
 Any slight instability would cause intermediate states to gain or lose energy and move toward one extreme or the other. 
This may explain why there are just two stable rishons, light and heavy. 
The bare mass may be much larger than the observed mass, due to renormalization. Unfortunately, it is not known how to calculate this, so hard numbers cannot be given.
The large spin of a rishon eliminates the spherically symmetric S states, leaving the three P states to correspond with the three colors.
The T rishon constantly emits and absorbs a cloud of V anti-V particles, corresponding with gluons and photons as the pair carries net color or not. 
The V rishon does not have enough mass to do this. 
The weak force arises from the transfer of a group of rishons, the W particle. 
Small temporal vibrations of a particle could be considered quantum gravity, which might help stabilize the particle. 
These vibrations might also cause a large-scale distortion of spacetime, similar to thermal expansion. 
We would perceive this distortion as classical gravity. 
The Planck equation simply states that this distortion, which we call gravity, mass, or energy is proportional to the frequency of a particle.
A rishon might have a polar temporal field caused by the circular motion of time waves, analogous to a magnetic field. 
Particles would be ejected preferentially along the direction of this field, because time flows in that direction, thus violating parity. 
The temporal field would be aligned with or against the direction of external time, corresponding to rishons or antirishons. 
Because of Time Differences
Because of the time difference, the two would have slightly different reaction rates, producing an excess of hydrogen over antihydrogen, which have the same rishonic content.
The photon and gluon are symmetric with respect to matter and antimatter, but the W is not, so only the weak force violates parity.
Time dilation and the relativity of simultaneity are features of special relativity, while in general relativity mass influences the flow of time and gravitational radiation consists in part of time waves. 
Therefore, our concept of time waves has some precedent. Quantum mechanics and general relativity both describe disturbances of spacetime and together provide a complete picture. 
Everything can be explained as waves, whirls, or bends in spacetime.
When a particle interacts, it stops time traveling into the past, because the coherence of the time waves is broken. 
The wave function collapses, or disappears, backward in time. 
It is as though the wave function never existed at all, so it vanishes instantaneously in all frames, in agreement with the fundamental principle of relativity, that there is no preferred frame.
In the rishon model, all neutral matter has equal amounts of T and anti-T rishons. Under sufficient pressure, theses would be forced together and annihilate, so matter would convert to photons or neutrinos and escape before a naked singularity could form, or in a big crunch.
The collapse of a wave function is an irreversible process, so quantum mechanics does not conserve information, in a black hole, or anywhere else. Gravity is a curvature of spacetime, so the need for gravitons is questionable.
In the rishon model, a photon consists of a V anti-V pair, so, like the neutrino, it might have a small rest mass.
If the wavelength of a rishons internal time wave is smaller than the rishon, the rishon would still oscillate in time, but in a more complicated way, perhaps giving rise to the effects associated with spin.
The P states mentioned above are conjectured to be states of intrinsic spin having spin one-half.
The photon and vector bosons have different masses because they are made of different rishons. 
Symmetry breaking is not needed.
Particles are disturbances in spacetime and according to general relativity would therefore have mass. 
The Higgs mechanism is not needed.
“It would be of great interest to discover and study the equations which govern the structure of the rishons.”
About the Author
Jay Daniel Shelton
Jay Daniel Shelton attended the University of British Columbia, where he received a Masters degree in Physics.
Some of Jay’s papers include:
“Eddy Current Model of Ball Lightning,” first published in Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 10, 1993 Leicester, NC 28748 USA
“Quantum Gravity May Explain Dark Matter,”
“Rishon Model of Elementary Particles,”
In addition “Time Travel Model of Quantum Mechanics.”
Jay is an independent investigator and resides in Fruita, Colorado.
E=mc2 is Wrong – Einstein’s Special Relativity Fundamentally Flawed
31-07-2010, 04:49 in: Science
Is Albert Einstein’s Special Relativity incompatible with the very equations upon which science’s greatest theory is built? 
New observations made by many scientists and engineers appear to contradict the great scientist’s ideas. Apparently, there are implicit contradictions present within Relativity’s foundational ideas, documents and equations.
One individual has even pointed that quotations from the 1905 document and Einstein’s contemporaries as well as interpretations of the Relativity equations clearly and concisely describe a confused and obviously erroneous theory.
It is time therefore, for science to update its thinking on this theory with a comprehensive analysis of the history leading up to, during and after that revolutionary year of Special Relativity. As this is the 100-year anniversary of the original release of Special Relativity, a review of the original assumptions, documents and ideas, which led to the acceptance of this theory, is timely and warranted. 
Every year millions of students are taught this theory without a critical analysis of Relativity. 
Relativity Theory consists of its two variants Special Relativity and General 
Relativity and is considered the cornerstone of modern physics.
 Albert Einstein borrowed from the ideas of Fitzgerald, Lorentz and Voigt to create a new concept of the universe. 
His first work in this regard later came to be known as Special Relativity and contained many controversial ideas, which today are considered axiomatic. 
Amongst these are Length Contraction, Time Dilation, the Twin Paradox and the equivalence of mass and energy summarized in the equation E=mc2. 
This equation became the shining capstone of the new theory along with its first & second postulates, namely, that the laws of nature are the same from all perspectives and that the speed of light ‘c’ is constant in a vacuum regardless of perspective. 
Further, the theory also predicted an increase in mass with velocity. Numerous examples have been given of the ‘proof’ of the validity of Special Relativity. 
Most notably, experiments using particle accelerators have sped particles to incredible velocities, which apparently provide confirmation of Einstein’s theory. However, doubts remain in the scientific community who has never totally given up the comfort of a Newtonian worldview. 
This is readily apparent in that they refer to the Newton’s ‘Law’ of Gravitation whilst Special Relativity (SR) and General Relativity (GR) are given the polite attribution ‘The Theory of’ or simply SR ‘theory’ and GR ‘theory.’ Einstein would continue working on the ideas of Special Relativity until producing the aforementioned even more controversial treatise. 
In his later more comprehensive work called the Theory of General Relativity (1916), Einstein proposed a major re-thinking of cosmology. 
He conceived of a space time continuum that is curved by mass; in other words, planets, stars, galaxies and other stellar objects cause a curvature of space time. 
The movement of these objects is determined by the aforementioned curvature. 
Because of these ideas, our understanding of geometry, math, physics, science and the universe would never be the same. 
However, some scientists are reporting that speed of light is not constant from different experimental observations. 
One has even reported errors in the fundamental equations. 
If so, this would require a major rethinking of the known cosmological models and assumptions of modern physics.
Free Online Essays: E=mc2 is Wrong – Einstein’s Special Relativity Fundamentally Flawed 
Special Relativity Lite (Simplified Version)
Correction of a special relativity theory. The fact of a methodological unreasonableness in direct comparisons of space-time parameters in two systems moving past one another with a relativistic velocity is fixed. Lorentz’s transformations are qualified in this connection as the subjective – illusory interrelations, which do not have the appearance of an objective reality. In total, known paradoxical absurdities are eliminated and special relativity acquires simplicity.
Read More: Special Relativity Lite (Simplified Version)
How your brain works.
The brain is the most complex structure in the known Universe! 
It possesses many highly specialized component parts each associated with specific tasks, for example memory and vision. The functioning of the human brain not only allows us to sense our environment and coordinate movements but also gives rise to attributes such as consciousness. 
It is the result of millions of years of evolution, the distant origins of the human brain can be seen in simple reptiles and mammals.
Read More: How your brain works.
How your brain works.
5-08-2010, 15:04 in: Science
Your Brain – General Features   The Human Cortex The most striking feature of the human brain is seen in the cortex. This is the folded, hemispherical structure, which constitutes the bulk of the visible brain. It is not present in reptiles. The cortex is relatively recent. 
It is perhaps one hundred thousand years old and is the part of the brain most closely associated with our ability to form complex representations of the external world, to reason logically and to use language. It is much more dominant in humans than in any other species. Regions of the cortex control vision, our auditory senses, and voluntary movement and touch sensations. It is also crucial for long-term memory.     Neurons and Networks 
The central nervous system is composed of something like one hundred billion nerve cells or neurons. Each nerve cell or neuron possesses a single axon along which it can pass electrical signals to other neurons. 
Incoming signals are carried by a neuron’s dendrites, which form a tree-like structure around the neuron. 
Neurons are about one micron (1 millionth meter) in diameter. 
The dendrites are perhaps ten times this in length while the axon varies from a millimeter up to one meter in length.
 The signal from one neuron reaches another at the junction of axon and dendrite — the synaptic gap. 
The typical voltages associated to these signals are small (tens of millivolts) and travel at about two hundred miles an hour (100 meters per second)
Typically, neurons can only fire once every millisecond (one-thousandth of a second) Different patterns of electrical firing activity are associated with different brain functions. 
 Learning and Connections 
The brain is both robust (able to function in the event of severed connections and/or dead neurons) and plastic – able to adapt to new memories and functions. 
This is due to ability of the brain to form new connections between neurons. 
These connections take place at synapses and are mediated by the release of neurotransmitter chemicals. 
These neurotransmitters alter the effective strength of the signal, which can pass between neurons.
During our early years and during any kind of learning process these connections form and change their strengths.  
 The power of the brain as a computational device derives from the complex network of neural pathways and the simultaneous processing capability of all the neurons. One such immensely powerful device belongs to you. 
You can personally program this device (your brain) to deliver everything you have ever truly desired.  
 This Genie within you is simply waiting to be told what it is you want. So set your Genie some exciting tasks to perform and pilot yourself to a future of positive expectation.
14-10-2010, 15:52 in: Essay samples
Mitochondria are responsible for energy production. They are also the
responsible location for which respiration takes place. Mitochondria contain
enzymes that help convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which
can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. Mitochondria tend to be
concentrated near cellular structures that require large inputs of energy, such
as the flagellum. The role of the mitochondria is very important in respiration.
In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate or fatty acids can be further
oxidized in the mitochondria. Two membranes separated by an intermembrane space enclose each mitochondrion. 
The intermembrane space extends into the
folds of the inner membrane called cristae, which dramatically increase the
surface area of the inner membrane. Cristae extend into a dense material called
the matrix, an area that contains RNA, DNA, proteins, ribosomes and range of
This is similar to the contents of the chloroplast stroma and like the
chloroplast; the mitochondrion is a semi-autonomous organelles containing the
machinery for the production of some of its own proteins. The main function of
the mitochondrion is the oxidation of the pyruvate derived from glycolysis and
related processes to produce the ATP required to perform cellular work. (Campbell
Pyruvates, or fatty acids from the breakdown of triglycerides or
phospholipids, pass easily through pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane
made up of a channel protein called porin. The inner membrane is a more
significant barrier and specific transport proteins exist to carry pyruvate and
fatty acids into the matrix. 
Once inside the matrix, pyruvate and fatty acids
are converted to the two carbon compound acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). For
private, this involves a decarboxylation step, which removes one of the three
carbons of pyruvate as carbon dioxide. The energy released by the oxidation of
pyruvate at this stage is used to reduce NAD to NADH. (185)
The C2 acetyl CoA is then taken into a sequence of reactions known as
Krebs cycle, which completes the oxidation of carbon and regenerates an acceptor
to keep the cycle going. The oxidation of the carbon is accompanied by the
reduction of electron acceptors and the production of some ATP by substrate
phosphorylation. The C2 acetyl CoA is coupled to oxaloacetate, a C4 acceptor in
the cycle. 
The product is citrate a C6 compound. This first product, citrate,
is the reason the cycle is sometimes called the citric acid or ticarboxylic acid
cycle, referring it after the scientist whose lab most advanced our
understanding of it, Sir Hans Krebs. (Comptons 160)
Two of the early reactions of the cycle are decarboxylations, which
shorten citrate to succinate a C4 compound. The CO2 lost does not actually
derive from acetyl CoA, during that cycle, but two carbons are lost which are
the equivalent of the two introduced by acetyl CoA. The decarboxylation steps
are again accompanied by the reduction of NAD to NADH. The formation of
succinate also sees the formation of an ATP molecule by substrate
phosphorylation. (Brit 1041)
The last part of the cycle converts C4 succinate back to C4 oxaloacetate.
In the process, another reaction generates NADH while another reduces the
electron acceptor FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) to FADH.
The final stage of respiration in the mitochondria involves the transfer
of energy from the reduced compounds NADH and FADH to the potential energy store
represented by ATP. The process is oxidative phosphorylation and it is driven
by a chemiosmotic system analogous to that seen in chloroplasts. (Moore 88-9)
The inner membrane contains an electron transport chain that can receive
electrons from reduced electron carriers. The energy lost as electrons flow
between the components of the electron transport chain is coupled to the pumping
of protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. The matrix is
alkalinized while the intermembrane space is acidified. The electrons are
ultimately combined with molecular oxygen and protons to produce water.
Respiration is aerobic when oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor. (Brit
The energy that was contained in the pyruvate molecule has at this point
been converted to ATP by substrate phosphorylation in glycolysis and Krebs cycle
and to a free energy gradient of protons across the inner membrane known as the
proton motive force (PMF). The gradient of protons will tend to diffuse to
equilibrium but charged substances like protons do not easily cross membranes.
Proton complexes in the inner membrane provide a channel for the protons to
return to the matrix. Those protein complexes function as an ATPase, an enzyme
that synthesizes ATP, because the energy liberated as the protons work to
diffuse back to the matrix is used to push the equilibrium between ADP+Pi and
ATP strongly toward ATP. (Campbell 182)
The electron transport chain has three sites along it that pump protons
from the matrix. NADH donates its electrons to the chain at a point where the
energy input is sufficient to drive all three proton-pumping sites. FADH is less
energetic than NADH and its electrons are donated at a point that drives two
proton-pumping sites. It is also possible for the NADH produced in glycolysis to
enter the mitochondrial matrix and donate electrons to the electron transport
chain. Depending on the system, NADH from glycolysis may be able to drive two or
three proton pumping sites. For eukaryotes, only two pumping sites are driven;
for prokaryotes, three. (184-5)
The importance of mitochondria is unremarkably, a key element in the
process of respiration. Between the three distinct sections of respiration,
glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport, the mitochondrion is the site
of which most of it takes place, either inside of the mitochondrion or outside
it. Further information can be found by researching the keywords on this article.

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